What is WPF?

WPF is a short abbreviation of Windows Presentation Foundation. It is an ideal framework for building Windows applications. The idea behind the introduction of WPF framework was that user could develop a rich user interface comprising of 3D, animation, rich color with minimum code complexity. WPF can be considered as an evolution over WinForms. It produces easy to operate graphical display system for windows. It offers easy separation between UI and the business logic. WPF is a vector-based rendering engine uses hardware acceleration of modern graphics cards which makes the Ul faster and highly scalable. WPF applications can be deployed in your system as a standalone desktop program or hosted as an embedded object in a website. In this training course, you will learn

Why WPF?

There are many reasons for using WPF platform some prominent ones are-
An ideal platform to use if you require to deal with various media types WPF allows you to create a skinned user interface. It also helps you when you need to load portion of the UI or want to bind XML data It allows you to take the benefit of the large .NET class library as it is built on .NET technology Resolution independence, so application developed using WMF can be run on mobile devices or a 20-inch monitor WPF builds on DirectX instead of WinAPI. It offers the client computer”s graphics system. Therefore, offering greater graphic rendering power Supports a flow document model which enables “desktop publishing” quality of the layout Appearance and behavior are loosely coupled. This allows designers and developers to work on two separate models In WMF framework you can graphically design tools on simple XML documents instead of parsing code Allows you to use hardware acceleration for drawing the GUI, for better performance

History of WPF

Windows 1.0 was the first GUI environment from Microsoft. It is working as a layer on top of DOS, relying on the GDI and USER systems for graphic and user interface. DirectX was introduced in the year 1995, as a high-performance graphics system. It was aimed at games and other graphics related environments. Over the years there are many versions released with Directx9 that provides a library to use with mange.Net code.

WPF version Release Year .Net Version Visual Studio Version Features
3.020063.0N/AInitial Release. However, WPF development can be done with VS 2005.
3.520073.5VS 2008Modification and improvements in: Application model, binding, controls, documents, annotations, and 3-D Ul elements.
3.5 SP120083.5 SP1N/ANative splash screen support. New web browser control, DirectX pixel shader support.
4.020104.0VS 2010New controls: Calendar. DataGrid, DatePicker. Multi-Touch and Manipulation
4.520124.5VS 2012Faster setup time and improved performance for Bitmap effects. New controls: Calendar. DataGrid, DatePicker. Multi-Touch and Manipulation
4.5.120134.5.1VS 2013New Ribbon control New INotifyDataErrorlnfo interface
4.5.220144.5.2NANo Major Change No Major Change
4.620154.6VS 2015Transparent child window support HDPI and Touch improvements

Features of WPF

Documents and Printing Security, Accessibility & Localization Offers Interoperability with Windows Forms controls Direct3D is used in graphical applications where performance is important Uses the video card hardware for rendering Vector-based graphics allows you to scale your application without loss of quality WPF supports floating-point logical pixel system and 32-bit ARGB color Redefine Styles and Control Templates Building international fonts from composite fonts WPF text rendering helps you to takes advantage of ClearType technology Allows you to use the caching technique of pre-rendered text in the video memory Resource-based Approach for every control Presentation timers are initialized & managed by WPF The relationship between video and animation is also supported In WPF a style is a set of properties which should be applied to content used for visual rendering Templates in WPF helps you to change the Ul of your document Commands are more abstract and loosely- coupled version of events WPF support for commands reduces the amount of code we need to write

WPF Core Types and Infrastructures

Classes in WPF are divided into four different types: UIElement FrameworkElement ContentElement FrameworkContentElementThese classes, known as base element classes. It provides the foundation for a model of composing user interfaces. WPF user interfaces are composed of elements which are assembled in a tree hierarchy. It is called the element tree. The element tree is an intuitive way to layout user interface.

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It is a structure which allows you to get the feature of powerful UI services. XAML Extensible Application Markup Language which is called “XAML”, or “zammel” is a declarative way to define user interfaces. Here is the XAML definition of a simple button: Say Hello thienmaonline.vnAdvantage of using XAML language: XAML separating front-end appearance from back-end logic XAML is the easiest method to represent user interfaces XAML is work effectively with toolsControls WPF framework supports many useful controls like: Editing controls like TextBox, CheckBox, RadioButton List controls such as ListBox, ListView, TreeView User information such as Label, ProgressBar, ToolTip Action such as Menu, Button, and ToolBar Appearances such as Border, Image, and Viewbox Common dialog boxes such as OpenFileDialog and PrintDialog. Containers such as TabContro, ScrollBar, and GroupBox Layouts like DocPanel, StackPanel, and Grid Navigation such as Frame and Hyperlink The appearance of controls can be customized with styles and templates without programming. You can also create a custom control by deriving a new class from an appropriate base class. Appearance WPF provides a feature for customizing the appearance of your application. It allows you to set objects and value for things like fonts, backgrounds, etc. The styles feature allows you to standardize on a specific look for the entire product. It allows you to replace the default appearance while retaining its default behavior. Data template allows you to control the default visualization of the bound data. With the help of themes, you can easily visualize styles from the operating system. Layout & Panels Layout helps you in proper positioning and sizing control. It is part of the process of composing the presentation for the user. The WPF framework eases the layout process and offers better adaptability of the UI appearance. The layout infrastructure is offered by various classes are 1) StackPanel 2)DockPanel 3) WrapPanel 4) Grid and 5) Canvas Graphics WPF provides an improved graphics system like WPF uses device-independent units, enabling resolution and device independence. Therefore, each pixel, which is device-independent, automatically scales with the dots-per-inch setting system WPF uses double instead of float and supports a wider array of colors The WPF graphics engine is designed in such a way that it can take advantage of graphics hardware when availableDocuments and Printing WPF framework offers three types of documents: Fixed documents: This type of document supports WYSIWYG presentation.Flow documents: Allows you to adjust and reflow content based on run-time variables like window size and device resolution.

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XPS documents: It is a paginated representation of electronic paper in an XML- based format. XPS is an open source and cross-platform document format.WPF enables better control over the print system. It includes remote printing and queues. Moreover, XPS documents can be printed directly without converting it into a print format.

WPF Architecture

WPF is a part of the .NET framework. It contains both managed and unmanaged code. The important components of WPF architecture are explained in the below-given figure: The most important components of part of WPF architecture are − PresentationFramework: Helps you to create top-level elements like Controls, styles, layout, windows, etc. PresentationCore: It holds base types such as UIElement, Visual from all Controls and shapes are Derived in PresentationFramework.dll. CLR: It makes the development process productive by offering features like memory management, error handling, etc. Milcore: Milcore is a part of the unmanaged code which offers tight integration with DirectX. DirectX: It is the low-level API which allows rendering graphics of WPF. DirectX talks interact with drivers and render the content. User32: It is the is a core API which is widely used by many programs. It manages memory and process separation. User32 helps you to decides which element will be placed where on the screen. Kernel: Input originates as a signal on a kernel mode device driver and gets routed to the correct process and by connecting with Windows kernel and User32.

WPF Installation

Refer this link to install WPF https://www.thienmaonline.vn/download-install-visual-studio.html

Building Your First WPF

In this section, we will develop a basic WPF application. So, let”s start the simple implementation by following the steps given below.

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