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The HTML element represents a paragraph. Paragraphs are usually represented in visual media as blocks of text separated from adjacent blocks by blank lines and/or first-line indentation, but HTML paragraphs can be any structural grouping of related content, such as images or form fields.

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Paragraphs are block-level elements, and notably will automatically close if another block-level element is parsed before the closing

tag. See “Tag omission” below.

The source for this interactive example is stored in a GitHub repository. If you”d like to contribute to the interactive examples project, please clone and send us a pull request.

Content categories

Permitted content

Tag omission

Permitted parents

Implicit ARIA role

Permitted ARIA roles

DOM interface

Flow content, palpable content.
Phrasing content.
The start tag is required. The end tag may be omitted if the

element is immediately followed by an , , , ,
, , , , , ,


, , , , , , , , , , , , or another element, or if there is no more content in the parent element and the parent element is not an element.

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Any element that accepts flow content.
No corresponding role

p>This is the first paragraph of text. This is the first paragraph of text. This is the first paragraph of text. This is the first paragraph of text.p>p>This is the second paragraph. This is the second paragraph. This is the second paragraph. This is the second paragraph.p>

By default, browsers separate paragraphs with a single blank line. Alternate separation methods, such as first-line indentation, can be achieved with CSS:

p>Separating paragraphs with blank lines is easiestfor readers to scan, but they can also be separatedby indenting their first lines. This is often usedto take up less space, such as to save paper in print.p>p>Writing that is intended to be edited, such as schoolpapers and rough drafts, uses both blank lines andindentation for separation. In finished works, combiningboth is considered redundant and amateurish.p>p>In very old writing, paragraphs were separated with aspecial character: ¶, the i>pilcrowi>. Nowadays, thisis considered claustrophobic and hard to read.p>p>How hard to read? See for yourself: button data-toggle-text=”Oh no! Switch back!”>Use pilcrow for paragraphsbutton>p>
p { margin: 0; text-indent: 3ch;}p.pilcrow { text-indent: 0; display: inline;}p.pilcrow + p.pilcrow::before { content: ” ¶ “;}
document.querySelector(“button”).addEventListener(“click”, function (event) { document.querySelectorAll(“p”).forEach(function (paragraph) { paragraph.classList.toggle(“pilcrow”); }); var newButtonText =; var oldText =; = newButtonText; = oldText;});

Breaking up content into paragraphs helps make a page more accessible. Screen-readers and other assistive technology provide shortcuts to let their users skip to the next or previous paragraph, letting them skim content like how white space lets visual users skip around.

Using empty elements to add space between paragraphs is problematic for people who navigate with screen-reading technology. Screen readers may announce the paragraph”s presence, but not any content contained within it — because there is none. This can confuse and frustrate the person using the screen reader.

If extra space is desired, use CSS properties like margin to create the effect:

p { margin-bottom: 2em; // increase white space after a paragraph}

Specification Status Comment
HTML Living StandardThe definition of “” in that specification.Living StandardNo change since the latest W3C snapshot HTML5
HTML5The definition of “” in that specification.

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Recommendationalign attribute is obsolete
HTML 4.01 SpecificationThe definition of “” in that specification.RecommendationInitial definition

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